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Messages - Shoelayceberry the [Unlaced]

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Tech Heads / Re: Altiris 7?
« on: August 22, 2014, 07:31:19 PM »
After cooling down a day, and getting a forum response that says everything should work as I implemented them (plus adding NFS services which makes sense), it was the fucking firewall. I don't know why, because application-wise, Altiris had already added itself, but turning it off did the trick. N00b.

Spamalot / Re: Wireless Keyboard/Mouse?
« on: August 22, 2014, 02:26:35 PM »
hold on to your wired components. nothing sucks worse than dead batteries.

wireless used to be significantly slower and heavier. I think the response caught up, but not sure about the weight. I just prefer wired components.

Tech Heads / Re: new rig critique
« on: August 22, 2014, 02:24:20 PM »
Uh, that's a picture in a foreign language, so I don't recognize much.

General Dissation / Re: Fermi Paradox breakdown
« on: August 22, 2014, 12:57:35 PM »
Seems sort of related:

How Tesla will help bring renewable energy to your business or home

The national power grid could someday become the backup to custom solar systems for businesses and homes

By Lucas Mearian

August 20, 2014 04:34 PM ET



Computerworld - Tesla Motors and other manufacturers have set their sites on achieving lower lithium-ion battery costs through economies of scale, which should enable power storage systems for solar energy.

By Tesla's own estimates, a project to build a battery factory called the "Gigafactory" is expected to drive down the per-kilowatt cost of its own lithium-ion batteries by more than 30% in its first year of production. The factory is expected to open in 2017.

By 2020, Tesla believes its Gigafactory will produce more lithium-ion batteries in one year than were produced worldwide in 2013.

"We're planning to build a large scale factory that will allow us to achieve economies of scale and minimize costs through innovative manufacturing, reduction of logistics waste, optimization of co-located processes and reduced overhead," according to Tesla's blog earlier this year.

Liquid batteries with a 20-plus year lifespan

Tesla's not alone in pursuing a cheaper, more efficient battery. Start-up Ambri is developing a liquid metal battery that it claims is less expensive and longer-lasting than lithium-ion batteries; the Massachusetts-based company also has the backing of Bill Gates and Total S.A., a multinational energy company.


Ambri's 200 kWh prototype battery core (Source: Ambri).

Kristin Brief, vice president of corporate development at Ambri, said the company is initially targeting the utility market, and next year plans to deploy five prototype systems with 35 kilowatt hours (kWh) of capacity to five customers to test.

"Following those successful pilots, we'll be ramping up a manufacturing facility to accommodate full-scale deliveries in late 2016 or early 2017," Brief said.

Ambri's cells are made of three components: a salt (electrolyte) which separates two metal layer electrodes. The cells operate at elevated temperature and, upon melting, the three layers self-segregate and float on top one of another due to their different densities and levels of immiscibility (they can't blend together, like oil and water), according to Ambri.

Ambri's full-scale commercial systems are modular in design. Ambri's base system will be two megawatt hours (MWh) and one megawatt of peak capacity; additional capacity can be added as needed.

Ambri hasn't released information on pricing, but Brief said the company "feels very good" about where it expects prices to be compared with more common lithium-ion or lead-acid batteries.

The liquid batteries are also expected to last at least 20 years. Internal testing has shown that after more than 2,000 cycles (powering and draining), the batteries retain their same capacity.

"Our results are fantastic," Brief said. "Lithium-ion, lead-acid and other types of batteries do see degradation in performance over time, but you really don't see that in our technology."

Today, battery systems for solar and wind power are too expensive, according to Jonathan Fishman, an analyst with PTT Research. A battery backup system typically consists of vehicle-style batteries and costs as much as $400 per kWh, Fishman said.

As battery technology evolves, it could pave the way to cost effectively store both wind and solar-generated energy and connect into electrical power grids. The technology also could used by businesses and homes, which could virtually remain off the grid except in emergencies.

Mass production will drive down the price through economies of scale, Fishman said. A battery backup system for a house would be about the size of a refrigerator and would cost about $3,000.

"That's a good cost," he said. "That's something I could see happening in solar systems across systems."

Economies of scale

Tesla plans on producing an electric vehicle for the "mass market," called the Model 3 sedan, in about three years, leveraging its and other manufacturers' demand for lithium-ion batteries in the process.

But the availability of less expensive electrical storage could also fuel the growth of utility and business-grade solar farms, which act like a conventional power plant by feeding electricity to the grid, and providing power at night as well.

Even consumers could benefit from inexpensive batteries that could store the average 35 kilowatts of power needed each day for a home to operate lights, appliances and other needs.

Fishman said that without adequate reserve power storage, solar systems face an uphill adoption battle because of their inability to supply power when the sun is down or covered by inclement weather.

"With cost reductions from the Gigafactory& , we may see lower-cost batteries trickle down to the [solar power] storage industry and see storage devices through SolarCity start to offer energy storage systems alongside their solar systems. In that case, a house could potentially be 100% off the grid," Fishman said. SolarCity is one of the largest solar power companies in the U.S.

A complete solar system with battery backup will likely sell for about $1.30 per watt by 2020, according to Fishman.

Today, solar systems for homes or businesses sell for around $2.5 per watt. A typical house needs a 6 to 7 kilowatt solar system, meaning installation costs more than $15,000. In other countries, such as China, the systems sell for as little as $1.15 per watt.

Panasonic has signed a deal with Tesla Motors to help build the Gigafactory, which it hopes will produce half a million electric-vehicle batteries per year.

The overall cost of constructing a utility-scale solar project came down 56% from 2010 to 2014 and now stands at $1.85 per watt on average, according to GTM research.

A look at the average power purchase agreement (PPA) price shows an average electricity price of 8 cents per kWh, down almost 40% since 2010, according to GTM.

By comparison, coal-fired electricity costs about 5 cents per kWh, "so solar is not cost competitive yet," Fishman said. "But if trends continue, it will be cost competitive."

Solar will continue to be a hot topic as companies increasingly find ways to make power more efficient and the industry enters a rapid capacity expansion phase.

"Even by 2020 or 2030, I don't think we'll see a house not connected to the grid, but what will happen is the grid will become a backup system," Fishman said.


Ambri's liquid battery technology
Ambri's liquid battery technology comes in consumer and industrial grade versions (source: Ambri).

Read more about Sustainable IT in Computerworld's Sustainable IT Topic Center.

General Dissation / Re: Opinions on the Zoe Quinn stuff?
« on: August 22, 2014, 01:06:47 AM »
The internet misogynistic lynchmobbing is lame and there is a lot of that going on here (on 4chan/reddit for sure), but I hate overcompensating for that by giving someone a free pass for their own behavior. There's some white knighting going strong, too.

I don't care who she slept with, or how many people. I don't think she deserves this much public shaming, either.

But sleeping/cheating to get unfair advantages in the industry absolutely sucks, and she does deserve to be judged on that. While I don't fully agree with the crowd saying she is a professional victim, I do think the shameless self-promotion and reticence to her personal affairs being taken public lend some credence to that. And if this is true regarding her professional conduct, it's hard to be particularly sympathetic.

Tech Heads / Re: Time to take a minute and reflect...
« on: August 21, 2014, 11:24:21 PM »
We've also hired in the last 8 months, 2 Director level Scientists (which is fine if they produce some funding), a director of Development, and now a COO; the salary outlay on that alone pisses me off. We've lost a Level II Sys Admin in December, and now a Senior level that they probably won't back fill. I was just starting to enjoy work again after a year of busting ass for the site move. So now for Windows support (~75% of the company 0f 250ppl) is 2 of us in California and 2 in Maryland.

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 21, 2014, 04:24:07 PM »
yeah, I haven't gone back and looked/searched, but I spent 30 minutes on it and wanted to shoot myself after the fact.

Spamalot / Re: How fat is Ziakas?
« on: August 21, 2014, 04:05:00 PM »
No mention? Fuck YOU Sear.

Tech Heads / Re: Time to take a minute and reflect...
« on: August 21, 2014, 04:00:51 PM »
And the other shoe drops...

The Senior Sys Admin on my team, who was the only one not a manager above me and basically becoming my mentor, has put in his notice. He's been fucked for a few years now, so is taking a job with potentially much less stress and more job security - there's nothing official, but it looks like we are consolidating to California offices for the past 4+ years, and will continue to for another 2-4.

My job is safe, for probably the medium term or longer, but I don't know near enough to pick up his slack, even with my Boss and I tag teaming it. Sure, it'll probably be great for my career, but I was hoping to wrap up some projects on my mind for years, before the end of this calendar year. Now, I may even have to drop them completely for lack of time (looking at you Altiris!).

Tech Heads / Re: Altiris 7?
« on: August 21, 2014, 03:49:47 PM »
Fuck. No references in the main ITMS Suite documentation - not even to say, "Hey, fuckface. Read the Mac Management documentation that we don't keep here before you plan out your site services, because you need a role service that no longer exists in Windows Server 2012 R2."

May have to backout the 2012 R2 server and just go back to 2008 R2 for better support on the Symantec side. God damn it. I swear to God, if DSC for Windows pans out, client side, fuck Symantec in their earholes, and I'll do Puppet for macs and DSC for Windows. Much less bullshit. Well understood, and easily secured protocols that are basically OS agnostic. And free + no licensing, which I also hate those assholes for!

Getting Fat with TZT / Re: Zucchini Muffins
« on: August 20, 2014, 01:05:22 PM »
Winter squash vs summer squash

General Dissation / Re: dear big pallanun - dorsiflexion question
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:40:22 PM »
It's good that you are worrying about it, but it sounds very near to surgery at this point. If they don't do anything for you at time of release, do it yourself.

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:37:05 PM »
i've looked at landmark a bit before. isn't it just a separate your-own-terrain/housing/world-building system, like a fancier minecraft? that doesn't really appeal to me unless it's destructible by at least mobs and preferably players, and incorporated into the broader world

They dropped the bomb this year that Landmark really is like an alpha/beta for EQN. Landmark is getting weapons and PVP in 2 weeks. It will still be a different world (maybe), but there will be tremendous overlap.

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:34:57 PM »
You'll just have to wait for the fully developed MMO I have developed (in my mind) that will never be realized.

I have been making notes and trying to develop storylines for years, during slow times. EQN is implementing a lot of things I always wanted to see. Kind of depressing, but kind of good that someone is trying to do it.

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:32:51 PM »
When I posted the above google search, there was only one page of hits. Just remember to look at the Landmark stuff too.

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:27:23 PM »
that's what they are promising. there's a video for the story brick portion (their AI solution), but the audio was fucking trash. maybe someone has uploaded a better one by now.

General Dissation / Re: Fermi Paradox breakdown
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:26:05 PM »
By the way, the original article was posted on Wait But Why which is pretty awesome in general.

Yeah. I got "buzzfed" while there, too.

General Dissation / Re: sepak takraw
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:25:02 PM »
Sepak Takraw sounds like a named aviak in south karana.

Lol + agree


hows does someone even start to learn to play this sport. you serve the ball by kicking 180 degrees over your head.. and you spike w/ bicycle kicks and shit.. fuck.

pretty cool though

kinda weird that "reflecting the solar energy to water towers to create steam to power turbines to generate electricity" is more efficient than installing solar panels to turn the solar energy into electricity directly

Some are using Molten sodium for this, to generate night time energy

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:19:41 PM »
is EQnext still going to be watered down boring ass tripe nothing like EQ at all?

I think we should give up the hype of it being the true successor to EQ, yes. That said, they are testing PVP stuff in Landmark and combat in both will be highly positional, with not a lot of ass-sitting. I'm thinking similar to how Vanguard did it, but that's just speculation at this point. They also mention having to anticipate where people will be before you trigger an attack, so along with positioning, and active dodging, it should allow the development of some skill. We'll see how much, though.

There's plenty to hate on about the changes they are making, but they are trying to really make a dent in the genre. I think it will be worth playing.

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 18, 2014, 07:12:23 PM »
Not directly, you're correct, but they mentioned that at release they're won't be all classes available, you will be able to discover about double what will be released.

It's also important to watch the Landmark stuff too, because they dropped the bomb that Landmark is really pre-alpha (in a way) for Next; it will remain its own entity, but basically everything they test/use in Landmark is also needed in Next. In one of the many Landmark stuff I watched, they mention armor giving abilities/stats and showed a monk-style outfit while saying something to the effect of "...this armor is for people interested in foregoing weapons..."

General Dissation / Re: SOE Live 2014 just happened this weekend
« on: August 18, 2014, 09:19:51 AM »

General Dissation / Fermi Paradox breakdown
« on: August 17, 2014, 05:25:36 PM »
Click the link. It's prettier.

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?
Tim Urban -
Filed to: space   


5/23/14 11:20am

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The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

Everyone feels something when they're in a really good starry place a really good starry place on a really good starry night and they look up and see this:

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

Some people stick with the traditional, feeling struck by the epic beauty or blown away by the insane scale of the universe. Personally, I go for the old "existential meltdown followed by acting weird for the next half hour." But everyone feels something.

Physicist Enrico Fermi felt something too—"Where is everybody?"

A really starry sky seems vast—but all we're looking at is our very local neighborhood. On the very best nights, we can see up to about 2,500 stars (roughly one hundred-millionth of the stars in our galaxy), and almost all of them are less than 1,000 light years away from us (or 1% of the diameter of the Milky Way). So what we're really looking at is this:

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

When confronted with the topic of stars and galaxies, a question that tantalizes most humans is, "Is there other intelligent life out there?" Let's put some numbers to it (if you don't like numbers, just read the bold)—

As many stars as there are in our galaxy (100 – 400 billion), there are roughly an equal number of galaxies in the observable universe—so for every star in the colossal Milky Way, there's a whole galaxy out there. All together, that comes out to the typically quoted range of between 10^22 and 10^24 total stars in the universe, which means that for every grain of sand on Earth, there are 10,000 stars out there.

The science world isn't in total agreement about what percentage of those stars are "sun-like" (similar to our sun in size, temperature, and luminosity)—opinions typically range from 5% to 20%. Going with the most conservative side of that (5%), and the lower end for the number of total stars (10^22), gives us 500 quintillion, or 500 billion billion sun-like stars.

There's also a debate over what percentage of those sun-like stars might be orbited by an Earth-like planet (one with similar temperature conditions that could have liquid water and potentially support life similar to that on Earth). Some say it's as high as 50%, but let's go with the more conservative 22% that came out of a recent PNAS study. That suggests that there's a potentially-habitable Earth-like planet orbiting at least 1% of the total stars in the universe—a total of 100 billion billion Earth-like planets.

So there are 100 Earth-like planets for every grain of sand in the world. Think about that next time you're on the beach.

Moving forward, we have no choice but to get completely speculative. Let's imagine that after billions of years in existence, 1% of Earth-like planets develop life (if that's true, every grain of sand would represent one planet with life on it). And imagine that on 1% of those planets, the life advances to an intelligent level like it did here on Earth. That would mean there were 10 quadrillion, or 10 million billion intelligent civilizations in the observable universe.

Moving back to just our galaxy, and doing the same math on the lowest estimate for stars in the Milky Way (100 billion), we'd estimate that there are 1 billion Earth-like planets and 100,000 intelligent civilizations in our galaxy. (The Drake Equation provides a formal method for this narrowing-down process we're doing.)

SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) is an organization dedicated to listening for signals from other intelligent life. If we're right that there are 100,000 or more intelligent civilizations in our galaxy, and even a fraction of them are sending out radio waves or laser beams or other modes of attempting to contact others, shouldn't SETI's satellite array pick up all kinds of signals?

But it hasn't. Not one. Ever.

Where is everybody?

It gets stranger. Our sun is relatively young in the lifespan of the universe. There are far older stars with far older Earth-like planets, which should in theory mean far more advanced civilizations than our own. As an example, let's compare our 4.54 billion-year-old Earth to a hypothetical 8 billion-year-old Planet X.

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

If Planet X has a similar story to Earth, let's look at where their civilization would be today:

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

The technology and knowledge of a civilization only 1,000 years ahead of us could be as shocking to us as our world would be to a medieval person. A civilization 1 million years ahead of us might be as incomprehensible to us as human culture is to chimpanzees. And Planet X is 3.4 billion years ahead of us…

There's something called The Kardashev Scale, which helps us group intelligent civilizations into three broad categories by the amount of energy they use:

A Type I Civilization has the ability to use all of the energy on their planet. We're not quite a Type I Civilization, but we're close (Carl Sagan created a formula for this scale which puts us at a Type 0.7 Civilization).

A Type II Civilization can harness all of the energy of their host star. Our feeble Type I brains can hardly imagine how someone would do this, but we've tried our best, imagining things like a Dyson Sphere.

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

A Type III Civilization blows the other two away, accessing power comparable to that of the entire Milky Way galaxy.

If this level of advancement sounds hard to believe, remember Planet X above and their 3.4 billion years of further development (about half a million times as long as the human race has been around). If a civilization on Planet X were similar to ours and were able to survive all the way to Type III level, the natural assumption is that they'd probably have mastered inter-stellar travel by now, possibly even colonizing the entire galaxy.

One hypothesis as to how galactic colonization could happen is by creating machinery that can travel to other planets, spend 500 years or so self-replicating using the raw materials on their new planet, and then send two replicas off to do the same thing. Even without traveling anywhere near the speed of light, this process would colonize the whole galaxy in 3.75 million years, a relative blink of an eye when talking in the scale of billions of years:

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

Source: J. Schombert, U. Oregon

Continuing to speculate, if 1% of intelligent life survives long enough to become a potentially galaxy-colonizing Type III Civilization, our calculations above suggest that there should be at least 1,000 Type III Civilizations in our galaxy alone—and given the power of such a civilization, their presence would likely be pretty noticeable. And yet, we see nothing, hear nothing, and we're visited by no one.
So where is everybody?

Welcome to the Fermi Paradox.

We have no answer to the Fermi Paradox—the best we can do is "possible explanations." And if you ask ten different scientists what their hunch is about the correct one, you'll get ten different answers. You know when you hear about humans of the past debating whether the Earth was round or if the sun revolved around the Earth or thinking that lightning happened because of Zeus, and they seem so primitive and in the dark? That's about where we are with this topic.

In taking a look at some of the most-discussed possible explanations for the Fermi Paradox, let's divide them into two broad categories—those explanations which assume that there's no sign of Type II and Type III Civilizations because there arenone of them out there, and those which assume they're out there and we're not seeing or hearing anything for other reasons:

Explanation Group 1: There are no signs of higher (Type II and III) civilizations because there are no higher civilizations in existence.

Those who subscribe to Group 1 explanations point to something called the non-exclusivity problem, which rebuffs any theory that says, "There are higher civilizations, but none of them have made any kind of contact with us because they all _____." Group 1 people look at the math, which says there should be so many thousands (or millions) of higher civilizations, that at least one of them would be an exception to the rule. Even if a theory held for 99.99% of higher civilizations, the other .001% would behave differently and we'd become aware of their existence.

Therefore, say Group 1 explanations, it must be that there are no super-advanced civilizations. And since the math suggests that there are thousands of them just in our own galaxy, something else must be going on.

This something else is called The Great Filter.

The Great Filter theory says that at some point from pre-life to Type III intelligence, there's a wall that all or nearly all attempts at life hit. There's some stage in that long evolutionary process that is extremely unlikely or impossible for life to get beyond. That stage is The Great Filter.

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

If this theory is true, the big question is, Where in the timeline does the Great Filter occur?

It turns out that when it comes to the fate of humankind, this question is very important. Depending on where The Great Filter occurs, we're left with three possible realities: We're rare, we're first, or we're fucked.

1. We're Rare (The Great Filter is Behind Us)

One hope we have is that The Great Filter is behind us—we managed to surpass it, which would mean it's extremely rare for life to make it to our level of intelligence. The diagram below shows only two species making it past, and we're one of them.

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

This scenario would explain why there are no Type III Civilizations…but it would also mean that we could be one of the few exceptions now that we've made it this far. It would mean we have hope. On the surface, this sounds a bit like people 500 years ago suggesting that the Earth is the center of the universe—it implies that we'respecial. However, something scientists call "observation selection effect" says that anyone who is pondering their own rarity is inherently part of an intelligent life "success story"—and whether they're actually rare or quite common, the thoughts they ponder and conclusions they draw will be identical. This forces us to admit that being special is at least a possibility.

And if we are special, when exactly did we become special—i.e. which step did we surpass that almost everyone else gets stuck on?

One possibility: The Great Filter could be at the very beginning—it might be incredibly unusual for life to begin at all. This is a candidate because it took about a billion years of Earth's existence to finally happen, and because we have tried extensively to replicate that event in labs and have never been able to do it. If this is indeed The Great Filter, it would mean that not only is there no intelligent life out there, there may be no other life at all.

Another possibility: The Great Filter could be the jump from the simple prokaryote cell to the complex eukaryote cell. After prokaryotes came into being, they remained that way for almost two billion years before making the evolutionary jump to being complex and having a nucleus. If this is The Great Filter, it would mean the universe is teeming with simple prokaryote cells and almost nothing beyond that.

There are a number of other possibilities—some even think the most recent leap we've made to our current intelligence is a Great Filter candidate. While the leap from semi-intelligent life (chimps) to intelligent life (humans) doesn't at first seem like a miraculous step, Steven Pinker rejects the idea of an inevitable "climb upward" of evolution: "Since evolution does not strive for a goal but just happens, it uses the adaptation most useful for a given ecological niche, and the fact that, on Earth, this led to technological intelligence only once so far may suggest that this outcome of natural selection is rare and hence by no means a certain development of the evolution of a tree of life."

Most leaps do not qualify as Great Filter candidates. Any possible Great Filter must be a one-in-a-billion type thing where one or more total freak occurrences need to happen to provide a crazy exception—for that reason, something like the jump from single-cell to multi-cellular life is ruled out, because it has occurred as many as 46 times, in isolated incidents, just on this planet alone. For the same reason, if we were to find a fossilized eukaryote cell on Mars, it would rule the above "simple-to-complex cell" leap out as a possible Great Filter (as well as anything before that point on the evolutionary chain)—because if it happened on both Earth and Mars, it's clearly not a one-in-a-billion freak occurrence.

If we are indeed rare, it could be because of a fluky biological event, but it also could be attributed to what is called the Rare Earth Hypothesis, which suggests that though there may be many Earth-like planets, the particular conditions on Earth—whether related to the specifics of this solar system, its relationship with the moon (a moon that large is unusual for such a small planet and contributes to our particular weather and ocean conditions), or something about the planet itself—are exceptionally friendly to life.

2. We're the First

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

For Group 1 Thinkers, if the Great Filter is not behind us, the one hope we have is that conditions in the universe are just recently, for the first time since the Big Bang, reaching a place that would allow intelligent life to develop. In that case, we and many other species may be on our way to super-intelligence, and it simply hasn't happened yet. We happen to be here at the right time to become one of the first super-intelligent civilizations.

One example of a phenomenon that could make this realistic is the prevalence of gamma-ray bursts, insanely huge explosions that we've observed in distant galaxies. In the same way that it took the early Earth a few hundred million years before the asteroids and volcanoes died down and life became possible, it could be that the first chunk of the universe's existence was full of cataclysmic events like gamma-ray bursts that would incinerate everything nearby from time to time and prevent any life from developing past a certain stage. Now, perhaps, we're in the midst of an astrobiological phase transition and this is the first time any life has been able to evolve for this long, uninterrupted.

3. We're Fucked (The Great Filter is Ahead of Us)

The Fermi Paradox: Where the Hell Are the Other Earths?Expand

If we're neither rare nor early, Group 1 thinkers conclude that The Great Filter must be in our future. This would apply that life regularly evolves to where we are, but that something prevents life from going much further and reaching high intelligence in almost all cases—and we're unlikely to be an exception.

One possible future Great Filter is a regularly-occurring cataclysmic natural event, like the above-mentioned gamma-ray bursts, except they're unfortunately not done yet and it's just a matter of time before all life on Earth is suddenly wiped out by one. Another candidate is the possible inevitability that nearly all intelligent civilizations end up destroying themselves once a certain level of technology is reached.

This is why Oxford University philosopher Nick Bostrom says that "no news is good news." The discovery of even simple life on Mars would be devastating, because it would cut out a number of potential Great Filters behind us. And if we were to find fossilized complex life on Mars, Bostrom says "it would be by far the worst news ever printed on a newspaper cover," because it would mean The Great Filter is almost definitely ahead of us—ultimately dooming the species. Bostrom believes that when it comes to The Fermi Paradox, "the silence of the night sky is golden."

Explanation Group 2: Type II and III intelligent civilizations are out there—and there are logical reasons why we might not have heard from them.

Group 2 explanations get rid of any notion that we're rare or special or the first at anything—on the contrary, they believe in the Mediocrity Principle, whose starting point is that there is nothing unusual or rare about our galaxy, solar system, planet, or level of intelligence, until evidence proves otherwise. They're also much less quick to assume that the lack of evidence of higher intelligence beings is evidence of their nonexistence—emphasizing the fact that our search for signals stretches only about 100 light years away from us (0.1% across the galaxy) and has only been going on for under a century, a tiny amount of time. Group 2 thinkers have come up with a large array of possible explanations for the Fermi Paradox. Here are 10 of the most discussed:

Possibility 1) Super-intelligent life could very well have already visited Earth, but before we were here. In the scheme of things, sentient humans have only been around for about 50,000 years, a little blip of time. If contact happened before then, it might have made some ducks flip out and run into the water and that's it. Further, recorded history only goes back 5,500 years—a group of ancient hunter-gatherer tribes may have experienced some crazy alien shit, but they had no good way to tell anyone in the future about it.

Possibility 2) The galaxy has been colonized, but we just live in some desolate rural area of the galaxy. The Americas may have been colonized by Europeans long before anyone in a small Inuit tribe in far northern Canada realized it had happened. There could be an urbanization component to the interstellar dwellings of higher species, in which all the neighboring solar systems in a certain area are colonized and in communication, and it would be impractical and purposeless for anyone to deal with coming all the way out to the random part of the spiral where we live.

Possibility 3) The entire concept of physical colonization is a hilariously backward concept to a more advanced species. Remember the picture of the Type II Civilization above with the sphere around their star? With all that energy, they might have created a perfect environment for themselves that satisfies their every need. They might have hyper-advanced ways of reducing their need for resources and zero interest in leaving their happy utopia to explore the cold, empty, undeveloped universe.

An even more advanced civilization might view the entire physical world as a horribly primitive place, having long ago conquered their own biology and uploaded their brains to a virtual reality, eternal-life paradise. Living in the physical world of biology, mortality, wants, and needs might seem to them the way we view primitive ocean species living in the frigid, dark sea. FYI, thinking about another life form having bested mortality makes me incredibly jealous and upset.

Possibility 4) There are scary predator civilizations out there, and most intelligent life knows better than to broadcast any outgoing signals and advertise their location. This is an unpleasant concept and would help explain the lack of any signals being received by the SETI satellites. It also means that we might be the super naive newbies who are being unbelievably stupid and risky by ever broadcasting outward signals. There's a debate going on currently about whether we should engage in METI (Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence—the reverse of SETI, which only listens) or not, and most people say we should not. Stephen Hawking warns, "If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans." Even Carl Sagan (a general believer that any civilization advanced enough for interstellar travel would be altruistic, not hostile) called the practice of METI "deeply unwise and immature," and recommended that "the newest children in a strange and uncertain cosmos should listen quietly for a long time, patiently learning about the universe and comparing notes, before shouting into an unknown jungle that we do not understand." Scary.[2]

Possibility 5) There's one and only one instance of higher-intelligent life—a "superpredator" civilization (kind of like humans are here on Earth)—who is farmore advanced than everyone else and keeps it that way by exterminating any intelligent civilization once they get past a certain level. This would suck. The way it might work is that it's an inefficient use of resources to exterminate all emerging intelligences, maybe because most die out on their own. But past a certain point, the super beings make their move—because to them, an emerging intelligent species becomes like a virus as it starts to grow and spread. This theory suggests that whoever was the first in the galaxy to reach intelligence won, and now no one else has a chance. This would explain the lack of activity out there because it would keep the number of super-intelligent civilizations to just one.

Possibility 6) There's plenty of activity and noise out there, but our technology is too primitive and we're listening for the wrong things. Like walking into a modern-day office building, turning on a walkie-talkie, and when you hear no activity (which of course you wouldn't hear because everyone's texting, not using walkie-talkies), determining that the building must be empty. Or maybe, as Carl Sagan has pointed out, it could be that our minds work exponentially faster or slower than another form of intelligence out there—e.g. it takes them 12 years to say "Hello," and when we hear that communication, it just sounds like white noise to us.

Possibility 7) We are receiving contact from other intelligent life, but the government is hiding it. This is an idiotic theory, but I had to mention it because it's talked about so much.

Possibility 8) Higher civilizations are aware of us and observing us but concealing themselves from us (AKA the "Zoo Hypothesis"). As far as we know, super-intelligent civilizations exist in a tightly-regulated galaxy, and our Earth is treated like part of a vast and protected national park, with a strict "Look but don't touch" rule for planets like ours. We wouldn't be aware of them, because if a far smarter species wanted to observe us, it would know how to easily do so without us noticing. Maybe there's a rule similar to the Star Trek's "Prime Directive" which prohibits super-intelligent beings from making any open contact with lesser species like us or revealing themselves in any way, until the lesser species has reached a certain level of intelligence.

Possibility 9) Higher civilizations are here, all around us, but we're too primitive to perceive them. Michio Kaku sums it up like this:

Lets say we have an ant hill in the middle of the forest. And right next to the ant hill, they're building a ten-lane super-highway. And the question is "Would the ants be able to understand what a ten-lane super-highway is? Would the ants be able to understand the technology and the intentions of the beings building the highway next to them?"

So it's not that we can't pick up the signals from Planet X using our technology, it's that we can't even comprehend what the beings from Planet X are or what they're trying to do. It's so beyond us that even if they really wanted to enlighten us, it would be like trying to teach ants about the internet.

Along those lines, this may also be an answer to "Well if there are so many fancy Type III Civilizations, why haven't they contacted us yet?" To answer that, let's ask ourselves—when Pizarro made his way into Peru, did he stop for a while at an anthill to try to communicate? Was he magnanimous, trying to help the ants in the anthill? Did he become hostile and slow his original mission down in order to smash the anthill apart? Or was the anthill of complete and utter and eternal irrelevance to Pizarro? That might be our situation here.

Possibility 10) We're completely wrong about our reality. There are a lot of ways we could just be totally off with everything we think. The universe might appear one way and be something else entirely, like a hologram. Or maybe we're the aliens and we were planted here as an experiment or as a form of fertilizer. There's even a chance that we're all part of a computer simulation by some researcher from another world, and other forms of life simply weren't programmed into the simulation.
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As we continue along with our possibly-futile search for extraterrestrial intelligence, I'm not really sure what I'm rooting for. Frankly, learning either that we're officially alone in the universe or that we're officially joined by others would be creepy, which is a theme with all of the surreal storylines listed above—whatever the truth actually is, it's mindblowing.

Beyond its shocking science fiction component, The Fermi Paradox also leaves me with a deep humbling. Not just the normal "Oh yeah, I'm microscopic and my existence lasts for three seconds" humbling that thinking about the universe always triggers. The Fermi Paradox brings out a sharper, more personal humbling, one that can only happen after spending hours of research hearing your species' most renowned scientists present insane theories, change their minds again and again, and wildly contradict each other—reminding us that future generations will look at us in the same way we see the ancient people who were sure that the stars were the underside of the dome of heaven, and they'll think "Wow they really had no idea what was going on."

Compounding all of this is the blow to our species' self-esteem that comes with all of this talk about Type II and III Civilizations. Here on Earth, we're the king of our little castle, proud ruler of the huge group of imbeciles who share the planet with us. And in this bubble with no competition and no one to judge us, it's rare that we're ever confronted with the concept of being a dramatically inferior species to anyone. But after spending a lot of time with Type II and III Civilizations over the past week, our power and pride are seeming a bit David Brent-esque.

That said, given that my normal outlook is that humanity is a lonely orphan on a tiny rock in the middle of a desolate universe, the humbling fact that we're probably not as smart as we think we are, and the possibility that a lot of what we're sure about might be wrong, sounds wonderful. It opens the door just a crack that maybe, just maybe, there might be more to the story than we realize.

But the concussion issue is due to the way helmets and padding increase hit speeds and how the trauma still reaches the brain.



Players in the NFL tackle the way they do because, until recently, the message in higher levels of football was "hurt that guy."  Not in the sense of trying to cause injuries, just in the sense of trying to intimidate people and physically beat them down over the course of a game/season.  Now we care about player safety, and those types of hits draw penalties.  So the emphasis is now on going back to fundamentals. 

What's "effective" is in the process of changing. 

There was a TV show I saw in the last year or two that broke down the forces seen in rugby vs football ( I want to say the equivalent of a car wreck at 30mph). Football was roughly 3 times the amount of force per impact, mostly due to pads/protection.

Basically, they got lazy because they were able to impart force to take down people in stead of technique. This occasionally leads to injuries but also can produce "big plays" 

General Dissation / Re: "Kafka-esque" Comcast CS Call
« on: August 14, 2014, 11:16:05 PM »
different states have different laws on recordings

General Dissation / Re: What is congress suing Obama over.
« on: August 14, 2014, 11:07:37 PM »
civil discourse has always been possible when certain people aren't expected to concede any points :buck2:

If you were talking about our last discussion it's because I didn't ( and still don't ) understand your counterpoint. Either that, or you don't understand mine. I've lost any caring about going back right now though. Thanks for giving it a try.

General Dissation / Re: What is congress suing Obama over.
« on: August 14, 2014, 09:58:38 PM »
what the fuck. I go away a couple weeks and you people have civil discourse. well fuck you.  :angry:

Tech Heads / Re: Programmer interview questions
« on: August 14, 2014, 09:15:29 PM »
who says drinking kills brain cells

Tech Heads / Re: Programmer interview questions
« on: August 13, 2014, 12:11:23 PM »
nice. memory/knowledge of those activities is fading over time for me...

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